Hi, Glenn, the motivations of trade and profit still add up to white dominance as a primary driver. Before you enslave someone, you demean someone. You deem them as savages. You deem them as uncivilized. You invent racism. And then there’s a rationalization loop. Are you familiar with the concept of racial capitalism and Cedric Robinson? This is the idea, based on history, that racialism and racialization were always in Europe’s capitalism. Also, white racism is distinguished by its brutality and its religion.